Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot

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Contents

Scope

Roberts' several hundred watercolor sketches were reproduced as lithographs by engraver Louis Haghe, a process that took almost eight years. London publisher F. G. Moon issued the lithographs as Egypt & Nubia and The Holy Land between 1842 and 1849, offered for sale by subscription. Roberts' works represent some of the most famous images of Egypt, and have been frequently reproduced since publication. His depictions of pharaonic monuments, like the Edfu temple or the temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel, are noteworthy for showing the structures prior to being fully excavated, adorned with brightly painted surfaces. Roberts' views of Egyptian cityscapes and mosques, mausoleums, and other Islamic monuments have become some of the most indelible European images of Middle Eastern architecture and urban life. The depictions of locations mentioned in the Bible, as well as Hellenistic sites like Petra in Jordan and Baalbek in Lebanon, have also achieved iconic status. The Rare Books and Special Collections Library holds two sets each of the multi-volume Egypt & Nubia and The Holy Land, including finely-bound editions from K.A.C. Creswell’s personal library.

Biographical Note

Early in his career Roberts sketched landscape views of Scotland, later apprenticing and working as a painter of scenery for theaters throughout the United Kingdom. Roberts first traveled abroad to paint in 1832, visiting Spain and producing paintings from which lithographs were later made. In 1838 Roberts sailed to Egypt, where he spent several months in the Nile Valley painting landscapes and views of pharaonic and Islamic monuments as far south as Abu Simbel in Nubia. Roberts returned to the region in 1839, making his way from Cairo to Mount Sinai, the ancient city of Petra, and numerous biblical and classical sites in the Holy Land of present day Israel, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon.

Provenance

The Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot was digitized and described by the Rare Books and Special Collections Library in March 2013. The following volumes from the K.A.C. Creswell collection were digitized:

  • DT53 .R62 1846 v.1 (M4)
  • DT53 .R62 1846 v.2 (M5)
  • DT53 .R62 1846 v.3 (M6)

DT53 .R62 1846 v.1 (M4) is missing the following plates which have been digitized from DT53 .R62 1846 v.1 (II) of the Max Debbane collection:

  • Page 79, View Under the Grand Portico, Philae

DT53 .R62 1846 v.3 (M6) is missing the following plates which have been digitized from DT53 .R62 1846 v.3 (II) of the Max Debbane collection:

  • Page 222, Minarets of the Bab Zeweileh and Entrance to the Mosque of the Metwalis, Cairo
  • Page 250, Interior of the Mosque of the Metwalis

Capture Specifications

All images in the Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot digital collection are captured with a Canon EOS 600D Digital SLR camera. This camera is used with the following equipment:

  • PhotoPRO GY-200 2 channel flash with 23W bulb
  • Beseler Company CS-20 copy stand
  • Matte black cardboard background

All volumes of Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot should be photographed cover to cover. Follow the examples of the Alexandria Bombardment of 1882 Photograph Album.

More information about digital photography specifications may be found at Digital Capture Equipment. All images were edited using Adobe Photoshop CS4 software.

Resolution Bit Depth Mode Compression Format Edits
16 megapixel 24 RGB Lossy image/x-canon-cr2 None

Camera Settings

Setting Option
Image-recording quality RAW
Shooting mode P/Program AE
Picture style N/Neutral
White balance AWB
Auto lighting optimizer Off
AM mode MF/Manual focusing
Drive mode Single shooting
Metering mode Evaluative metering
Red-eye reduction Disable
Color space Adobe RGB
AF mode Live mode
ISO Speed 200
Aspect ratio 1:1
Auto rotate On
Exposure compensation/AEB setting 0

Handling Materials

  • Wear gloves when handling the books.
  • Keep scanning area neat. No food. No drinks.
  • Capture the entire image.
  • A border around the entire image must be visible.

File Names

Use the following formula to create file names:

Call Number - ####
  • Call number refers to the one of the following call numbers:
    • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4
    • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5
    • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6
  • #### refers to the item number.

Examples

DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0001
DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0002
DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0003
DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0001
DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0002
DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0003
DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0001
DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0002
DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0003

Directory Structure

Use the following hierarchy template to organize images:

  • Collection
    • File Type
      • Call Number
        • Image

Example

  • Egypt and Nubia From Drawings Made on the Spot
    • Preservation Master
      • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4
        • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0001.cr2
        • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0002.cr2
        • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0003.cr2
      • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5
        • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0001.cr2
        • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0002.cr2
        • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0003.cr2
      • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6
        • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0001.cr2
        • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0002.cr2
        • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0003.cr2
    • Delivery Master
      • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4
        • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0001.tif
        • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0002.tif
        • DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4-0003.tif
      • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5
        • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0001.tif
        • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0002.tif
        • DT53-R62-1846-v2-M5-0003.tif
      • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6
        • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0001.tif
        • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0002.tif
        • DT53-R62-1846-v3-M6-0003.tif

All images should be saved to the RBSCLProjects server.

Metadata

The bibliographic record for Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot can be found in the AUC Catalog.

Description

The descriptive metadata scheme used for describing cultural heritage materials is derived from the fifteen terms of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1 and their refining properties defined in DCMI Metadata Terms. Best Practices for CONTENTdm and other OAI-PMH compliant Repositories: Creating Shareable Metadata, authored by the CONTENTdm Metadata Working Group was also consulted. [1] [2] [3]

Books

Field Name Scope Note Example Required?
Title
  • Capitalize the first word of the title and enter in lowercase all other words except proper nouns.
  • Do not include initial articles, unless an integral part of the title and/or provided by the creator as the true title. This allows the system to index by title alphabetically. Optionally, you may add the title containing the article to the Alternative Title field.
  • If the item does not have a title, such as an un-cataloged photograph, assign one that is brief but descriptive. Bring out the unique qualities of an item.
Egypt & Nubia: from drawings made on the spot, vol. 1
Alternative Title
  • Use for other titles the resource may be known by, alternate spellings, transliterations, MARC title statement, etc.
  • Capitalize the first word of the title, and enter in lowercase all other words except proper nouns.
  • Do not move initial articles to the end.
Egypt & Nubia : from drawings made on the spot by David Roberts with historical descriptions by William Brockedon lithographed by Louis Haghe
Artist
  • Enter the name(s) of entities responsible for the creation of the item.
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names. [4] [5]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • Use MARC Relators to use generate a different label for the field. For a photograph collection, you might label the field Photographer. [4]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Roberts, David, 1796-1864
Author
  • Enter the name(s) of entities responsible for the creation of the item.
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names. [4] [5]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • Use MARC Relators to use generate a different label for the field. For a photograph collection, you might label the field Photographer. [4]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Brockedon, William, 1787-1854
Lithographer
  • Enter the name(s) of entities that made significant contributions to the item.
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names. [4] [5]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • Use MARC Relators to use generate a different label for the field. For a collection of content acquired by another party, you might use Collector. [4]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Haghe, Louis, 1806-1885
Publisher
  • Use to record the publisher
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File. [4]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
F.G. Moon, 1846-1849
Description
  • Enter supplemental descriptive information such as a free text summary.
  • End field with a period.
  • Avoid simply restating the title.
  • When transcribed, enter source of information using one of or a combination of the following options:
    • Photographer's description: ____.
    • Translation of photographer's description: _____.
    • Text in image: _____.
    • Translation of text in image: _____.
  • Enter the names of people in pictures using the following: Pictured from left to right: _____.
    • When the writing is unintelligible, enter illegible between brackets, e.g. [illegible].
  • If an exact date or date range is unknown for an item, you may enter circa dates, and undated information in the description, e.g. This photograph is undated. This photograph was taken circa 1990. Be sure to enter approximate date ranges in the Date Created field. For example, if a photograph was taken circa 1924, enter 1920-1930 in the Date Created field. Be as specific as possible when entering date ranges.
First volume of Egypt & Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot.
Topic
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings should be used to record specific topical information about the image and its context to the collection. Additionally, when describing items that are graphic in nature, such as photographs, use Subjects. [4]
  • Include terms for places such as in this field only if the object being described relates directly to the location.
  • Do not include names. Record names in the Names field.
  • Exclude geographic headings and subdivisions if that information can be appropriately included in the Location (coverage.spatial) field. Exceptions exist for items such as maps and newspapers, in cases where the main topic of the item is a geographic place.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Antiquities; Description and travel; Egypt; Nubia
Location
  • Enter each place as its own term, in order from specific to general.
  • Look up terms in the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. [7]
  • Do not include “World” unless it specifically is world-related, like world maps.
  • Only include names of geographic places like cities, counties, countries, etc., and omit named places such as Tahrir Square or Matḥaf al-Miṣrī. Record named places in the Topic element instead.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in order of decreasing specificity.
Egypt; Nubia; Africa
Date Created
  • Format the date according ISO 8601 standard:
    • YYYY-MM-DD
    • YYYY-MM
    • YYYY
    • YYYY-YYYY
  • If the date is entirely unknown, do not enter text like “undated.” Instead, narrow the date to a date range, e.g. 1900-1999.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in chronological order.
1846-1849
Type
  • Enter the characteristic and general type of content of the resource.
  • Look up terms using the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Type Vocabulary. [8]
Still Image; Text
Format
  • Enter Internet Media Type. [9]
application/pdf
Extent
  • Enter dimensions of original in W x H unit or measurement, using the metric system (e.g. mm. or cm.) or digital image measurement (e.g. px.).
  • Abbreviate units, such as px. or mm. End each unit of measurement with a period.
  • Include moving image and sound recording run times in HH:MM:SS format, using leading zeros when necessary.
  • Include the number of pages when applicable, in ### p. format. End p with a period.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon.
73 x 47 cm.; pp.
Medium
  • Enter original format or medium information in this field.
  • Look up terms in the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus. [10]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon.
books
Language
  • Enter the ISO 639-1 Language Code for items with linguistic content. [4]
  • Leave this field blank if there is no linguistic content.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
en
Identifier
  • Enter a unique identifier.
  • The identifier should be the same as the digital file name and correspond with the physical collection.
DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4
Original Identifier
  • Enter the LC call number.
DT53 .R62 1846 v.1 (M4)
Collection
  • Enter the title of the digital collection to which the resource belongs.
Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot
Source
  • Enter the file, series, collection, repository, and institution with which the resource is related.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in order of decreasing specificity.
Egypt & Nubia : from drawings made on the spot / by David Roberts ... with historical descriptions by William Brockedon ... lithographed by Louis Haghe ...
License
  • Enter copyright information.
Copyright 2013, American University in Cairo. All rights reserved.
Access Rights
  • Enter a statement about requesting permissions or reproductions.
To inquire about permissions or reproductions, contact the Rare Books and Special Collections Library, The American University in Cairo at +20.2.2615.3676 or rbscl-ref@aucegypt.edu.

Lithographs

Field Name Scope Note Example Required?
Title
  • Capitalize the first word of the title and enter in lowercase all other words except proper nouns.
  • Do not include initial articles, unless an integral part of the title and/or provided by the creator as the true title. This allows the system to index by title alphabetically. Optionally, you may add the title containing the article to the Alternative Title field.
  • If the item does not have a title, such as an un-cataloged photograph, assign one that is brief but descriptive. Bring out the unique qualities of an item.
Author
  • Enter the name(s) of entities responsible for the creation of the item.
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names. [4] [5]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • Use MARC Relators to use generate a different label for the field. For a photograph collection, you might label the field Photographer. [4]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Roberts, David, 1796-1864
Contributor
  • Enter the name(s) of entities that made significant contributions to the item.
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names. [4] [5]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • Use MARC Relators to use generate a different label for the field. For a collection of content acquired by another party, you might use Collector. [4]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Brockedon, William, 1787-1854; Haghe, Louis, 1806-1885
Publisher
  • Use to record the publisher
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File. [4]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
F.G. Moon, 1846-1849
Description
  • Enter supplemental descriptive information such as a free text summary.
  • End field with a period.
  • Avoid simply restating the title.
  • When transcribed, enter source of information using one of or a combination of the following options:
    • Photographer's description: ____.
    • Translation of photographer's description: _____.
    • Text in image: _____.
    • Translation of text in image: _____.
  • Enter the names of people in pictures using the following: Pictured from left to right: _____.
    • When the writing is unintelligible, enter illegible between brackets, e.g. [illegible].
  • If an exact date or date range is unknown for an item, you may enter circa dates, and undated information in the description, e.g. This photograph is undated. This photograph was taken circa 1990. Be sure to enter approximate date ranges in the Date Created field. For example, if a photograph was taken circa 1924, enter 1920-1930 in the Date Created field. Be as specific as possible when entering date ranges.
Name
  • Use to record a person, family or corporate body that is the subject of the item being described. For example, enter the names of people pictured in a photograph in this field. Do not include the name of the creator unless he/she is also the subject of the item.
  • Look up names in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names. [4] [5]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File or the Getty Union List of Artist Names, create one based on RDA rules. [6]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Topic
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings should be used to record specific topical information about the image and its context to the collection. Additionally, when describing items that are graphic in nature, such as photographs, use Subjects. [4]
  • Include terms for places such as in this field only if the object being described relates directly to the location.
  • Do not include names. Record names in the Names field.
  • Exclude geographic headings and subdivisions if that information can be appropriately included in the Location (coverage.spatial) field. Exceptions exist for items such as maps and newspapers, in cases where the main topic of the item is a geographic place.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Subject
  • Use this field to inventory the items depicted in an image, e.g. Protest posters, Monuments & memorials, etc.
  • Look up terms in the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials. Be sure to use subject terms, not genre/format terms. [11]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Architectural Detail
  • Look up terms in the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus. [10]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
Location
  • Enter each place as its own term, in order from specific to general.
  • Look up terms in the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. [7]
  • Do not include “World” unless it specifically is world-related, like world maps.
  • Only include names of geographic places like cities, counties, countries, etc., and omit named places such as Tahrir Square or Matḥaf al-Miṣrī. Record named places in the Topic element instead.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in order of decreasing specificity.
Date Created
  • Format the date according ISO 8601 standard:
    • YYYY-MM-DD
    • YYYY-MM
    • YYYY
    • YYYY-YYYY
  • If the date is entirely unknown, do not enter text like “undated.” Instead, narrow the date to a date range, e.g. 1900-1999.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in chronological order.
1846-1849
Type
  • Enter the characteristic and general type of content of the resource.
  • Look up terms using the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Type Vocabulary. [8]
Still Image
Format
  • Enter Internet Media Type. [9]
image/jp2
Extent
  • Enter dimensions of original in W x H unit or measurement, using the metric system (e.g. mm. or cm.) or digital image measurement (e.g. px.).
  • Abbreviate units, such as px. or mm. End each unit of measurement with a period.
  • Include moving image and sound recording run times in HH:MM:SS format, using leading zeros when necessary.
  • Include the number of pages when applicable, in ### p. format. End p with a period.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon.
73 x 47 cm.
Medium
  • Enter original format or medium information in this field.
  • Look up terms in the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus. [10]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon.
lithographs
Language
  • Enter the ISO 639-1 Language Code for items with linguistic content. [4]
  • Leave this field blank if there is no linguistic content.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in alphabetical order.
en
Identifier
  • Enter a unique identifier.
  • The identifier should be the same as the digital file name and correspond with the physical collection.
DT53-R62-1846-v1-M4
Original Identifier
  • Enter the LC call number.
DT53 .R62 1846 v.1 (M4)
Collection
  • Enter the title of the digital collection to which the resource belongs.
Egypt and Nubia: From Drawings Made on the Spot
Source
  • Enter the file, series, collection, repository, and institution with which the resource is related.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in order of decreasing specificity.
Egypt & Nubia : from drawings made on the spot / by David Roberts ... with historical descriptions by William Brockedon ... lithographed by Louis Haghe ...
License
  • Enter copyright information.
Copyright 2013, American University in Cairo. All rights reserved.
Access Rights
  • Enter a statement about requesting permissions or reproductions.
To inquire about permissions or reproductions, contact the Rare Books and Special Collections Library, The American University in Cairo at +20.2.2615.3676 or rbscl-ref@aucegypt.edu.

Workflow

Name/Label Scope Note Example Required
Date Entered
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is created by an RBSCL student employee, volunteer, or Digital Collections Archivist.
2013-03-03
Date Reviewed-Curator
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is reviewed by the RBSCL Photograph and Cinema Collections Curator.
2012-03-04
Date Reviewed-Archivist
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is reviewed by the RBSCL Digital Collections Archivist.
2012-03-05

Controlled Vocabularies

Name

Topic

  • Antiquities
  • Description and travel
  • Egypt
  • Nubia

Subject

  • Mosques

Architectural Detail

  • arches
  • boundary walls
  • columns (architectural elements)
  • minarets

References

  1. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1
  2. DCMI Metadata Terms
  3. Best Practices for CONTENTdm and other OAI-PMH compliant Repositories: Creating Shareable Metadata
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Library of Congress Authorities
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Getty Union List of Artist Names
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Resource Description & Access
  7. 7.0 7.1 Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
  8. 8.0 8.1 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Type Vocabulary
  9. 9.0 9.1 Internet Media Types
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus
  11. Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials
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