K.A.C. Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture

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Contents

Scope

The K.A.C. Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture digital collection includes oversized photographic prints taken by Keppel Archibald Cameron Creswell from YYYY to YYYY. The photographs document ...

Biographical Note

Creswell is considered to be the father of the study of Islamic Architecture. Born in London on September 13, 1879, Creswell first visited the Middle East when he was stationed in Egypt following the outbreak of World War I. In 1919 he was appointed Inspector of Monuments in Palestine in the Royal Flying Corps. In this capacity, Creswell began surveying and photographing Islamic monuments in unprecedented detail. His documentation ranged from the Euphrates to Egypt. King Fuʼād I of Egypt hired Creswell in 1920 to pen History of the Muslim Architecture of Egypt, which resulted in a two volumes. Additionally, he authored another two volume work entitled, Early Muslim Architecture. In 1931, Fuʼād I appointed Creswell a lecturer at Cairo University and in Fuʼād, and in 1956 he was appointed a Distinguished Professor of Islamic Art and Architecture at the American University in Cairo.

Provenance

The K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture was acquired by the American University in Cairo in 1956, when the Rare Books and Special Collections Library took ownership of the personal libray of Creswell. Beginning in 1957, the American University in Cairo housed Creswell's photograph collection and portions of his personal papers, however, Creswell maintained property rights over his collection. Upon Creswell's death in 1974, ownership of his personal library was formally transferred to the American University in Cairo, excepting photographic negatives which were bequethed to Oxford University's Ashmolean Museum of Art & Archaeology.

The oversized photograph albums were digitized and described by the Rare Books and Special Collections Library in September and October 2012. The collection will be publicly accessible in the Rare Books and Special Collections Digital Library. [1]

Capture Specifications

All of the images in the K.A.C. Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture were captured with an Epson GT-20000 scanner. Oversized images were also captured with a Canon Rebel EOS. All images were edited using Adobe Photoshop CS4 software.

Scanning Specifications

File Type Resolution Compression Dimensions Bit Depth Mode Format Edits Notes
Preservation master 1200 ppi None Sized to match original, no magnification or reduction. 24 RGB image/tiff None Original scans.
Delivery master 1200 ppi None Sized to match original, no magnification or reduction. 24 RGB image/tiff Cropping and image rotation as needed. Images derived from original scans.

Follow the Epson Scan software settings below.

Mode Document Type Document Source Image Type Resolution Scale
Professional Mode Reflective Document Table 24-bit Color 1200 dpi 100%

Photography Specifications

File Type Resolution Bit Depth Mode Compression Format Edits
Preservation Master 240 ppi 24 RGB Lossless RAW None
Delivery Master 240 ppi 24 RGB Lossless RAW Cropping and image rotation as needed.
Delivery 240 ppi 24 RGB Lossless image/tiff None

Handling Photographs

  • Wear gloves when handling the photos.
  • Keep scanning area neat. No food. No drinks.
  • Capture the entire image, including the photographic border.
  • A border around the entire image must be visible.

Saving Files

All scans and digital photographs should be saved to RBSCLProjects\K.A.C. Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture\In Progress\Album ##. All images inadequately labeled should be saved to RBSCLProjects\K.A.C. Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture\In Progress\Questions\Box ##.

File Names

Photographic Prints

Use the following formula to create file names for oversized photographic prints:

SC-1974-01 - 02 - 01 - a## - pl## - a## - c##
SC-1974-01 - 02 - 01 - a## - pl## - b##
SC-1974-01 - 02 - 01 - a## - pl## - c##
SC-1974-01 - 02 - 01 - b## - pl## - a##
...
  • SC-1974-01 refers to the K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture call number.
  • 02 refers to the Photographs series.
  • 01 refers to the Photographic Prints subseries.
  • a## refers to the album number.
  • pl### refers to Creswell's plate number.
  • a## refers to Creswell's alphanumeric item identifier.
  • c## refers to Creswell's copy number. [2]

Examples

 SC-1974-01-02-01-a08-pl19-a01
 SC-1974-01-02-01-a08-pl20-a03
 SC-1974-01-02-01-a08-pl27-a02

Use the following formula to create file names for exceptions to the above rules:

 SC-1974-01 - 02 - 01 - a## - ## - pr## - b##
  • SC-1974-01 refers to the K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture call number.
  • 02 refers to the Photographs series.
  • 01 refers to the Photographic Prints subseries.
  • c## refers to an undefined original identifier.
  • pr ###refers to the print number.
  • b## refers to the original box number.

Examples

 SC-1974-01-02-01-c07-pr017-b02
 SC-1974-01-02-01-c07-pr015-b02
 SC-1974-01-02-01-c07-pr122-b02
 SC-1974-01-02-01-c07-pr121-b02

Add exceptions to the regular file naming schema to a directory labeled Questions.

Oversized Photographic Prints

Use the following formula to create file names for oversized photographic prints:

SC-1974-01 - 02 - 02 - a## - pl## - a## - c##
SC-1974-01 - 02 - 02 - a## - pl## - b##
SC-1974-01 - 02 - 02 - a## - pl## - c##
SC-1974-01 - 02 - 02 - a## - pl## - c## - Photo
...
  • SC-1974-01 refers to the K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture call number.
  • 02 refers to the Photographs series.
  • 02 refers to the Oversized Albums subseries.
  • a## refers to the album number.
  • pl### refers to Creswell's plate number.
  • a## refers to Creswell's alphanumeric item identifier.
  • c## refers to Creswell's copy number. [3]
  • Photo refers to the images that were captured with a digital camera.

Examples

 SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl19-a01
 SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl19-a01-Photo
 SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl20-a03
 SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl27-a02

Use the following formula to create file names for exceptions to the above rules:

 SC-1974-01 - 02 - 02 - a## - ## - pr## - b##
  • SC-1974-01 refers to the K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture call number.
  • 02 refers to the Photographs series.
  • 02 refers to the Oversized Albums subseries.
  • c## refers to an undefined original identifier.
  • pr ###refers to the print number.
  • b## refers to the original box number.

Examples

 SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr017-b02
 SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr015-b02
 SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr122-b02
 SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr121-b02

Add exceptions to the regular file naming schema to a directory labeled Questions.

Directory Structure

Use the following hierarchy template to organize images:

  • Collection Title
    • File Type
      • Subseries ##
        • Album ##
          • Image

Example

  • KAC Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture
    • Preservation Master
      • Subseries 02
        • Album 08a
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl19-a01.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl19-a01-Photo.jpg
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl20-a03.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl27-a02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl30-a01.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl30-a01-Photo.jpg
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl31-a01.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl31-a01-Photo.jpg
      • Questions
        • Box 08-10
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr017-b02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr015-b02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr122-b02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr121-b02.tif
    • Delivery Master
      • Subseries 02
        • Album 08a
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl19-a01.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl19-a01-Photo.jpg
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl20-a03.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl27-a02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl30-a01.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl30-a01-Photo.jpg
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl31-a01.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl31-a01-Photo.jpg
      • Questions
        • Box 08-10
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr017-b02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr015-b02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr122-b02.tif
          • SC-1974-01-02-02-c07-pr121-b02.tif

Metadata

Description

Field Name Scope Note Example Required
Title
  • Enter a brief but descriptive title in English.
  • Capitalize the first word of the title, and enter in lowercase all other words except proper nouns.
  • Do not include initial articles, unless an integral part of the title and/or provided by the creator as the true title. This allows the system to index by title alphabetically.
Mosque of 'Amr ibn al-'As minbar
Photographer
  • Enter a name from the Library of Congress Name Authority File. [4]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File, create one based on RDA rules. [5]
  • Refer to the list of approved Photographers below.
Lekegian, G.
Collector
  • Enter a name from the Library of Congress Name Authority File. [4]
  • If an authorized name is not found in the Library of Congress Name Authority File, create one based on RDA rules. [5]
Creswell, K. A. C. (Keppel Archibald Cameron), 1879-1974
Description
  • Enter supplemental descriptive information such as a free text summary.
  • End field with a period.
  • Avoid simply restating the title.
  • When transcribed, enter source of information using the following statements in the following order:
    • Photographer's description: ____.
    • Translation of photographer's description: ____.
    • Collector's description: ____.
    • Translation of collector's description: ____.
    • Repository's description: ____.
  • When the writing is unintelligible, enter illegible between brackets, e.g. [illegible].
Collector's description: 2026 Mosqée Amrou (Memar). Translation of collector's description: 2026 Mosque of Amr (Minbar). Repository's description: The Mosque of 'Amr.
Name
  • Use to record a person, family or corporate body that is the subject of the item being described. For example, enter the names of people pictured in a photograph in this field. Do not include the name of the creator unless he/she is also the subject of the item.
  • Refer to the list of approved Names below.
ʻAmr ibn al-ʻĀṣ
Topic
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings [4] should be used to record specific topical information about the image and its context to the collection. Additionally, when describing items that are graphic in nature, such as photographs, use Subjects.
  • Include terms for places such as in this field if the object being described relates directly to the location. For example, an aerial photograph of Luxor should include Luxor (Egypt) in the Topic field.
  • Refer to the list of approved Topics below.
Architecture, Abbasid; Architecture, Islamic
Subject
  • Use this field to inventory the items depicted in an image, e.g. Protest posters, Monuments & memorials, etc.
  • Look up terms in the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials. Be sure to use subject terms, not genre/format terms. [6]
  • Refer to the list of approved Subjects below.
Floor coverings; Men; Mosques
Architectural Detail
  • Look up terms in the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus. [7]
  • Enter terms alphabetically.
  • Separate each term with a semicolon.
  • Refer to the list of approved Architectural Details below.
columns (architectural elements); minbars
Location
  • Look up terms in the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names. [8]
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in order of decreasing specificity.
  • Refer to the list of approved Locations below.
Masjid al Fatḩ; Al-Qāhirah governorate; Egypt; Africa
Date Created
  • Format the date according ISO 8601 standard:
    • YYYY-MM-DD
    • YYYY-MM
    • YYYY
    • YYYY-YYYY
  • If the date is entirely unknown, do not enter text like “undated.” Instead, narrow the date to a date range, e.g. 1900-1999.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon in chronological order.
1890-1899
Type
  • Enter the characteristic and general type of content of the resource.
  • Look up terms using the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Type Vocabulary. [9]
Still Image
Format
  • Enter Internet Media Type. [10]
image/jp2
Extent
  • Enter dimensions of original in W x H unit or measurement, using the metric system (e.g. mm. or cm.) or digital image measurement (e.g. px.).
  • Abbreviate units, such as px. or mm. End each unit of measurement with a period.
  • Include the number of pages when applicable, in ### p. format. End p with a period.
33.5 x 41.7 cm.
Medium
  • Enter original format or medium information in this field.
  • Look up terms in the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus. [7]
photographic prints
Language
  • Enter the ISO 639-1 Language Code for items with linguistic content. [4]
  • Leave this field blank if there is no linguistic content.
  • List multiple entries separated by a semicolon and a space in alphabetical order.
en; fr
Identifier
  • Enter a unique identifier.
  • The identifier should be the same as the directory and correspond with the physical collection.
SC-1974-01-02-02-a08-pl31-a01
Original Identifier
  • Enter the original file name if different from identifier.
  • Capitalize the As and Ps.
  • Occasionally, items will have multiple original identifiers. Separate multiple values with a semicolon and a space, transcribing directly from the original.
  • Original identifiers may also look like the following:
    • C7 Print 17 (Box II)
    • A14 Pl.30 B/2 c.1
    • A19 37 B
A8 Pl.31 A/1
Collection
  • Enter the title of the digital collection to which the resource belongs.
K.A.C. Creswell Photographs of Islamic Architecture
Is Part Of
  • Enter the box number.
Box 8-11
Source
  • Enter the album, subseries, series, collection, repository, and institution.
  • Separate multiple entries with a semicolon and a space.
K.A.C. Creswell Photograph Album 8; K.A.C. Creswell Oversized Photograph Albums; K.A.C. Creswell Photographs; K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture; Rare Books and Special Collections Library; American University in Cairo
License
  • Enter copyright information.
Copyright 2012, American University in Cairo. All rights reserved.
Access Rights
  • Enter permission and reproduction request information.
To inquire about permissions or reproductions, contact the Rare Books and Special Collections Library, The American University in Cairo at +20.2.2615.3676 or rbscl-ref@aucegypt.edu.
Acknowledgements
  • Include granting and funding agencies, donors, etc.
The K.A.C. Creswell Papers and Photograph Collection of Islamic Architecture was donated to the American University in Cairo by K.A.C. Creswell.

Workflow

Name/Label Scope Note Example Required
Questions?
  • Enter a check mark to indicate that you have questions about the item, e.g. the identifier is confusing. Associated files will be added to a Questions directory.
  • Information is entered by the RBSCL Digital Collections Archivist.
Photograph or rescan?
  • Enter a one of the following notes to indicate that the item must be photographed or needs to be scanned or rescanned.
    • Needs to be scanned.
    • Needs to be re-scanned.
    • Needs to be photographed
  • Information is entered by the RBSCL Digital Collections Archivist.
Needs to be re-scanned.
Date Entered
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is created by the RBSCL Digital Collections Archivist.
2011-11-01
Date Reviewed-Student
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is reviewed by an RBSCL student employee.
2011-11-03
Date Reviewed-Curator
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is reviewed by the RBSCL Photograph and Cinema Collections Curator.
2011-11-04
Date Reviewed-Archivist
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the metadata record is reviewed by the RBSCL Digital Collections Archivist.
2011-11-05
Date Uploaded
  • Enter the date, in YYYY-MM-DD format, that the item is uploaded to the digital collection.
2011-11-06

Controlled Vocabularies

Photographer

  • Beato, Antonio, d. 1903?
  • Bechard
  • Hammerscmist, Frith, Desire and Delie
  • Lekegian, G.
  • Sebah and Zangaki

Name

  • ʻAmr ibn al-ʻĀṣ

Topic

  • Architecture, Abbasid
  • Architecture, Mameluke
  • Architecture, Islamic
  • Architecture, Vernacular
  • Art, Abbasid
  • Art, Mameluke
  • Art, Islamic
  • Art, Vernacular
  • Decoration and ornament, Abbasid
  • Decoration and ornament, Mameluke
  • Decoration and ornament, Islamic
  • Decoration and ornament, Vernacular

Subject

  • Floor coverings
  • Men
  • Monuments & memorials
  • Mosques
  • Women

Architectural Detail

  • columns (architectural elements)
  • courtyards
  • dikkas [11]
  • maqsuras [12]
  • meshrebeeyehs [13]
  • mihrabs [14]
  • minbars [15]
  • minarets [16]
  • qibla walls [17]

Location

  • Masjid al Fatḩ; Al-Qāhirah governorate; Egypt; Africa

Language

  • ar
  • en
  • fr
  • it

Properties

Configuration of CONTENTdm collection and administrative fields. [18]

Collection Fields

Field name DC map Data type Large Search Hide Required Vocab
Title Title Text
Photographer Creator Text
Collector Contributor Text
Description Description Text
Name Subject Text
Topic Subject Text
Subject Subject Text
Architectural Detail Subject Text
Location Coverage-Spatial Text
Date Created Date-Created Date
Type Type Text
Format Format Text
Extent Format-Extent Text
Medium Format-Medium Text
Language Language Text
Identifier Identifier Text
Original Identifier Identifier Text
Collection Relation Text
Is Part Of Relation-Is Part Of Text
Source Source Text
License Rights-License Text
Access Rights Rights-Access Rights Text
Acknowledgements Description Text

Administrative Fields

Field name DC map Data type Search Hide
Archival file None Text
OCLC number None Text
Date issued Date-issued Date
Date modified Date-modified Date
CONTENTdm number None Text
CONTENTdm file name None Text

References

  1. Rare Books and Special Collections Digital Library
  2. When indicated.
  3. When indicated.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Library of Congress Authorities
  5. 5.0 5.1 Resource Description & Access
  6. Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials
  7. 7.0 7.1 Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus
  8. Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
  9. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Type Vocabulary
  10. Internet Media Types
  11. In mosques, high podiums on columns from which the celebrant's assistant repeats his Koran readings and gestures for the more distant worshippers.
  12. A private enclosure in a mosque near the mihrab, typically for the use of the caliph or other important person.
  13. In Islamic architecture, windows filled with screens or grilles of turned wood. For lattices or screens of perforated stone, in Islamic architecture, especially of Mughal India, use "jali."
  14. Niches, chambers, or slabs in Mosques, indicating the direction of Mecca.
  15. Pulpits in mosques, having a small stand for the speaker, parapet, canopy, narrow stairs, and usually a gate at the foot of the stairs.
  16. Tall, slender towers of a mosque, from which the faithful are called to prayer.
  17. Walls of a mosque or idgah oriented toward Mecca and usually containing a minbar.
  18. CONTENTdm
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